Teaching Meanings at Three Levels
(Abstract for CLTA-GNY 2011)
This presentation is linguistically based but pedagogically oriented. It is in an attempt to help classroom teachers to raise awareness of the importance of teaching meanings through the forms, and of teaching different types, or levels, of meanings that their students need to identify and to learn to comprehend and express properly.
It is the investigator’s observation that often times a classroom teacher can easily reach the goal of teaching lexical meanings, especially those of content words, such as simple nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs which do not involve much difference in their Chinese usage than in English, but may encounter greater challenges in teaching the meanings of grammar words, such as question and negation words, time and location words, auxiliary and modal verbs, verb particles, prepositions and co-verbs, noun-phrase and verb-phrase builders, sentence and discourse connectors, and so on. In this presentation, I will cite some student errors to illustrate that such grammar words, as well as some idiomatic usage and expressions, can not only function at the sentential level to express structural meanings, but also at the discourse level to express contextual meanings and even pragmatic (i.e. speakers’) meanings. The following are 3 examples of the 3 levels of meanings (where the star signs mark sentences with errors).
1) Structural meaning
English – Last week I went swimming twice at the school swimming pool.
Correct Chinese – 上个星期我去学校游泳池游了两次泳。
2) Contextual meaning
English – Yesterday the teacher came to class late and the students waited for him for 10 minutes.
Correct Chinese – 昨天老师上课来晚了，学生们等了他十分钟。
3) Pragmatic (speaker’s) meaning
English – Host: How come you’re not eating? You should eat more!
Guest: (a good response in Chinese)
Correct Chinese – 主人：你们怎么不吃啊？你们得多吃点儿！